A Quick Guide to DevOps Capability System on the Cloud


1. Automated O&M Pyramid

Figure 1: Automated O&M Pyramid
Table 1: A Reference for Comparison of Autonomous Driving Level and Automated O&M Level
  • Level 1 — Manual O&M: For enterprises with average technical capabilities, their initial cloud migration is performed manually and can only rely on the console provided by cloud service providers.
  • Level 2 — Semi-Automated O&M: At this level, no more than 30% of O&M automation is required. Partial operations can be performed through the Command Line Interface (CLI).
  • Level 3 — Highly-Automated O&M: The degree of automation is about 50%. Enterprise O&M personnel use the Software Development Kit (SDK) of the cloud platform to call the Application Programming Interface (API) for routine O&M and develop their own O&M systems. However, their O&M systems do not support the customization or platform capability and are tightly coupled with internal systems.
  • Level 4 — Standardized Automated O&M: With more than 90% O&M automation, the O&M systems have been equipped with capabilities of platforms, templates and code. Systems can be customized by the enterprise’s own requirements. Besides, O&M personnel are ready to use templated products to standardize and automate their O&M.
  • Level 5 — AIOps: It is intelligent O&M with 100% automation without on-call personnel, emancipating the productive forces entirely. This is currently the O&M goal of many large Internet enterprises and also the focus of leading enterprises.

2. DevOps: The Advanced Mode of Automated O&M

2.1 Templating: The Most Compatible Way for DevOps

2.2 Templating or Coding: The Foundation of AIOps

3. Foundation Core of DevOps: CI/CD and Infrastructure as Code (IaC)

Figure 2: System Operating Environment for CI/CD Pipelines

3.1 System Operation Environment of CI/CD Pipeline

Figure 3: CI/CD Pipeline
Figure 4: System Environment Directory
  • Environment types such as the routine test environment, the pre-release environment, and the production environment.
  • Environment regions such as Hangzhou, Beijing, or Shanghai.
  • Other parameters in the deployment environment such as account, AccessKey/Token, and role.
  • Resource configurations such as the number of servers and domain names.

3.2 Three Capabilities of Standardized Deployment on the Cloud

  • For environment deployments such as routine test environment, the pre-release environment, and the production environment, only one deployment needs to be built. It means the repeated deployment can be achieved by adding a new stage. Generally, it starts from the routine environment and then repeats to the pre-release and production environments.
  • Multi-region deployment helps quickly repeat the deployment. For example, the cluster is deployed in Hangzhou first and then deployed in other regions such as Beijing and Shanghai. Generally, it is only necessary to add a new region stage on the pipeline, adding configuration parameters to implement one-click deployment.
  • Cluster deployment can also realize quick deployment. For example, several clusters are deployed first, then multiple clusters are deployed repeatedly. Users can add a new cluster stage to the pipeline and then configure parameters to implement one-click deployment.
  • Disaster recovery environment deployment. If a production environment is deployed first and then a disaster recovery environment needs to be deployed, cluster deployment must be used.

4. Capabilities a Complete DevOps System Should Have

Figure 5: DevOps Flowchart
Figure 6: Four-Ring Diagram of the Lifecycle of Cloud Resources
Figure 7: Different Phases of the ECS Automated O&M Kit
Table 2: Comparison between Container Control (Kubernetes) and Cloud Server DevOps

5. Obstacles to DevOps Implementation: Achieve Balance with Financial Process

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