Essential Technologies for Java Developers: I/O and Netty

Java I/O Models


BIO is a synchronous blocking model, in which one client connection corresponds to one thread. In BIO, the accept and read methods are used for blocking. If no connection requests exist, the accept method is used for blocking. If no data can be read, the read method is used for blocking.


NIO is a synchronous and non-blocking model. In NIO, one thread on the server can handle multiple requests, the connection request sent by the client is registered with the multiplexer selector, and the server thread polls the multiplexer to check whether any I/O requests exist. If a request exists, it will be handled.

AIO (NIO 2.0)

AIO is an asynchronous non-blocking model. It is generally used for applications with a large number of connections and a long connection time. After the read and write events are completed, the callback service instructs the application to start threads. In AIO, only the read or write method needs to be called to perform read or write operations. Both methods are asynchronous.

Evolution of I/O Models

Traditional I/O Model

For traditional I/O operations, a client is connected to a server and they communicate with each other through the following process: The client sends a request, and the server reads, decodes, computes, and encodes the request and then sends a response to the client. The server creates a thread and a channel for each client connection, and then handles subsequent requests (in BIO mode).

Reactor Model

The reactor model is an event-driven model. An application on a server handles multiple inbound requests and dispatches them to the corresponding threads of the requests. The reactor model is also called the Dispatcher mode due to the I/O multiplexing mechanism, which dispatches the received events to a thread. This is a necessary technology for writing high-performance network servers.

Netty Thread Model

The Netty thread model is an implementation of the reactor model, as shown in the following figure.

Thread Group

Netty abstracts the BossGroup and WorkerGroup thread pools of the NioEventLoopGroup class. BossGroup receives connection requests from clients, whereas WorkerGroup handles connections that complete TCP three-way handshakes.


Netty abstracts the data pipelines of channels into ChannelPipelines, allowing messages to be transmitted in ChannelPiplines. A ChannelPipeline contains the two-way linked list of ChannelHandlers, which intercept I/O events. It allows you to add and delete ChannelHandlers to customize different business logic without modifying existing ChannelHandlers. This supports modification closure and extensions.

Synchronous and Non-Blocking

Write operation: Calling the write method of the NioSocketChannel to write data to connections is non-blocking and a response is immediately returned, even if an Alibaba Cloud thread is used. In the ChannelPipeline, Netty determines whether the thread called by the NioSocketChannel to write data is the thread in the corresponding NioEventLoop. If not, Netty encapsulates the write request as a write task and sends it to the queue in the corresponding NioEventLoop. When the thread in the corresponding NioEventLoop polls read and write events, Netty extracts the task from the queue and executes it.

Original Source:



Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store