How to Use Java Agents with ASM Bytecode Framework?

1) Overview

java
public interface Instrumentation {
//注册一个转换器,类加载事件会被注册的转换器所拦截
void addTransformer(ClassFileTransformer transformer, boolean canRetransform);
//重新触发类加载
void retransformClasses(Class<?>... classes) throws UnmodifiableClassException;
//直接替换类的定义
void redefineClasses(ClassDefinition... definitions) throws ClassNotFoundException, UnmodifiableClassException;
}

2) Premain

java
java -javaagent:agent.jar=xunche HelloWorld
java
public static void premain(String agentArgs, Instrumentation inst);
public static void premain(String agentArgs);

2.1 A Simple Example

java
package org.xunche.app;
public class HelloWorld {
public static void main(String[] args) {
System.out.println("Hello World");
}
}
java
package org.xunche.agent;
public class HelloAgent {
public static void premain(String args) {
System.out.println("Hello Agent: " + args);
}
}
java
echo 'Premain-Class: org.xunche.agent.HelloAgent' > manifest.mf
javac org/xunche/agent/HelloAgent.java
javac org/xunche/app/HelloWorld.java
jar cvmf manifest.mf hello-agent.jar org/
java
java -javaagent:hello-agent.jar=xunche org/xunche/app/HelloWorld
java
Hello Agent: xunche
Hello World

2.2 A Complicated Example

java
package org.xunche.app;
public class HelloXunChe {
public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
HelloXunChe helloXunChe = new HelloXunChe();
helloXunChe.sayHi();
}
public void sayHi() throws InterruptedException {
System.out.println("hi, xunche");
sleep();
}
public void sleep() throws InterruptedException {
Thread.sleep((long) (Math.random() * 200));
}
}
java
package org.xunche.agent;
import jdk.internal.org.objectweb.asm.*;
import jdk.internal.org.objectweb.asm.commons.AdviceAdapter;
import java.lang.instrument.ClassFileTransformer;
import java.lang.instrument.Instrumentation;
import java.security.ProtectionDomain;
public class TimeAgent {
public static void premain(String args, Instrumentation instrumentation) {
instrumentation.addTransformer(new TimeClassFileTransformer());
}
private static class TimeClassFileTransformer implements ClassFileTransformer {
@Override
public byte[] transform(ClassLoader loader, String className, Class<?> classBeingRedefined, ProtectionDomain protectionDomain, byte[] classfileBuffer) {
if (className.startsWith("java") || className.startsWith("jdk") || className.startsWith("javax") || className.startsWith("sun") || className.startsWith("com/sun")|| className.startsWith("org/xunche/agent")) {
//return null或者执行异常会执行原来的字节码
return null;
}
System.out.println("loaded class: " + className);
ClassReader reader = new ClassReader(classfileBuffer);
ClassWriter writer = new ClassWriter(reader, ClassWriter.COMPUTE_FRAMES | ClassWriter.COMPUTE_MAXS);
reader.accept(new TimeClassVisitor(writer), ClassReader.EXPAND_FRAMES);
return writer.toByteArray();
}
}
public static class TimeClassVisitor extends ClassVisitor {
public TimeClassVisitor(ClassVisitor classVisitor) {
super(Opcodes.ASM5, classVisitor);
}
@Override
public MethodVisitor visitMethod(int methodAccess, String methodName, String methodDesc, String signature, String[] exceptions) {
MethodVisitor methodVisitor = cv.visitMethod(methodAccess, methodName, methodDesc, signature, exceptions);
return new TimeAdviceAdapter(Opcodes.ASM5, methodVisitor, methodAccess, methodName, methodDesc);
}
}
public static class TimeAdviceAdapter extends AdviceAdapter {
private String methodName;
protected TimeAdviceAdapter(int api, MethodVisitor methodVisitor, int methodAccess, String methodName, String methodDesc) {
super(api, methodVisitor, methodAccess, methodName, methodDesc);
this.methodName = methodName;
}
@Override
protected void onMethodEnter() {
//在方法入口处植入
if ("<init>".equals(methodName)|| "<clinit>".equals(methodName)) {
return;
}
mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "java/lang/StringBuilder");
mv.visitInsn(DUP);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "<init>", "()V", false);
mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/Object", "getClass", "()Ljava/lang/Class;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/Class", "getName", "()Ljava/lang/String;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitLdcInsn(".");
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitLdcInsn(methodName);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "toString", "()Ljava/lang/String;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESTATIC, "org/xunche/agent/TimeHolder", "start", "(Ljava/lang/String;)V", false);
}
@Override
protected void onMethodExit(int i) {
//在方法出口植入
if ("<init>".equals(methodName) || "<clinit>".equals(methodName)) {
return;
}
mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "java/lang/StringBuilder");
mv.visitInsn(DUP);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "<init>", "()V", false);
mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 0);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/Object", "getClass", "()Ljava/lang/Class;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/Class", "getName", "()Ljava/lang/String;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitLdcInsn(".");
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitLdcInsn(methodName);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "toString", "()Ljava/lang/String;", false);
mv.visitVarInsn(ASTORE, 1);
mv.visitFieldInsn(GETSTATIC, "java/lang/System", "out", "Ljava/io/PrintStream;");
mv.visitTypeInsn(NEW, "java/lang/StringBuilder");
mv.visitInsn(DUP);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESPECIAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "<init>", "()V", false);
mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 1);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitLdcInsn(": ");
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, 1);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESTATIC, "org/xunche/agent/TimeHolder", "cost", "(Ljava/lang/String;)J", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "append", "(J)Ljava/lang/StringBuilder;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/lang/StringBuilder", "toString", "()Ljava/lang/String;", false);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKEVIRTUAL, "java/io/PrintStream", "println", "(Ljava/lang/String;)V", false);
}
}
}
java
package org.xunche.agent;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;
public class TimeHolder {
private static Map<String, Long> timeCache = new HashMap<>();
public static void start(String method) {
timeCache.put(method, System.currentTimeMillis());
}
public static long cost(String method) {
return System.currentTimeMillis() - timeCache.get(method);
}
}
java
package org.xunche.app;
import org.xunche.agent.TimeHolder;
public class HelloXunChe {
public HelloXunChe() {
}
public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
TimeHolder.start(args.getClass().getName() + "." + "main");
HelloXunChe helloXunChe = new HelloXunChe();
helloXunChe.sayHi();
HelloXunChe helloXunChe = args.getClass().getName() + "." + "main";
System.out.println(helloXunChe + ": " + TimeHolder.cost(helloXunChe));
}
public void sayHi() throws InterruptedException {
TimeHolder.start(this.getClass().getName() + "." + "sayHi");
System.out.println("hi, xunche");
this.sleep();
String var1 = this.getClass().getName() + "." + "sayHi";
System.out.println(var1 + ": " + TimeHolder.cost(var1));
}
public void sleep() throws InterruptedException {
TimeHolder.start(this.getClass().getName() + "." + "sleep");
Thread.sleep((long)(Math.random() * 200.0D));
String var1 = this.getClass().getName() + "." + "sleep";
System.out.println(var1 + ": " + TimeHolder.cost(var1));
}
}

3) Agentmain

3.1 Practice Example

java
package org.xunche.app;
public class HelloTraceAgent {
public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
HelloTraceAgent helloTraceAgent = new HelloTraceAgent();
while (true) {
helloTraceAgent.sayHi("xunche");
Thread.sleep(100);
}
}
public String sayHi(String name) throws InterruptedException {
sleep();
String hi = "hi, " + name + ", " + System.currentTimeMillis();
return hi;
}
public void sleep() throws InterruptedException {
Thread.sleep((long) (Math.random() * 200));
}
}
java
package org.xunche.agent;
import jdk.internal.org.objectweb.asm.*;
import jdk.internal.org.objectweb.asm.commons.AdviceAdapter;
import java.lang.instrument.ClassFileTransformer;
import java.lang.instrument.Instrumentation;
import java.lang.instrument.UnmodifiableClassException;
import java.security.ProtectionDomain;
public class TraceAgent {
public static void agentmain(String args, Instrumentation instrumentation) throws ClassNotFoundException, UnmodifiableClassException {
if (args == null) {
return;
}
int index = args.lastIndexOf(".");
if (index != -1) {
String className = args.substring(0, index);
String methodName = args.substring(index + 1);
//目标代码已经加载,需要重新触发加载流程,才会通过注册的转换器进行转换
instrumentation.addTransformer(new TraceClassFileTransformer(className.replace(".", "/"), methodName), true);
instrumentation.retransformClasses(Class.forName(className));
}
}
public static class TraceClassFileTransformer implements ClassFileTransformer {
private String traceClassName;
private String traceMethodName;
public TraceClassFileTransformer(String traceClassName, String traceMethodName) {
this.traceClassName = traceClassName;
this.traceMethodName = traceMethodName;
}
@Override
public byte[] transform(ClassLoader loader, String className, Class<?> classBeingRedefined, ProtectionDomain protectionDomain, byte[] classfileBuffer) {
//过滤掉Jdk、agent、非指定类的方法
if (className.startsWith("java") || className.startsWith("jdk") || className.startsWith("javax") || className.startsWith("sun")
|| className.startsWith("com/sun") || className.startsWith("org/xunche/agent") || !className.equals(traceClassName)) {
//return null会执行原来的字节码
return null;
}
ClassReader reader = new ClassReader(classfileBuffer);
ClassWriter writer = new ClassWriter(reader, ClassWriter.COMPUTE_FRAMES | ClassWriter.COMPUTE_MAXS);
reader.accept(new TraceVisitor(className, traceMethodName, writer), ClassReader.EXPAND_FRAMES);
return writer.toByteArray();
}
}
public static class TraceVisitor extends ClassVisitor {
private String className;
private String traceMethodName;
public TraceVisitor(String className, String traceMethodName, ClassVisitor classVisitor) {
super(Opcodes.ASM5, classVisitor);
this.className = className;
this.traceMethodName = traceMethodName;
}
@Override
public MethodVisitor visitMethod(int methodAccess, String methodName, String methodDesc, String signature, String[] exceptions) {
MethodVisitor methodVisitor = cv.visitMethod(methodAccess, methodName, methodDesc, signature, exceptions);
if (traceMethodName.equals(methodName)) {
return new TraceAdviceAdapter(className, methodVisitor, methodAccess, methodName, methodDesc);
}
return methodVisitor;
}
}
private static class TraceAdviceAdapter extends AdviceAdapter {
private final String className;
private final String methodName;
private final Type[] methodArgs;
private final String[] parameterNames;
private final int[] lvtSlotIndex;
protected TraceAdviceAdapter(String className, MethodVisitor methodVisitor, int methodAccess, String methodName, String methodDesc) {
super(Opcodes.ASM5, methodVisitor, methodAccess, methodName, methodDesc);
this.className = className;
this.methodName = methodName;
this.methodArgs = Type.getArgumentTypes(methodDesc);
this.parameterNames = new String[this.methodArgs.length];
this.lvtSlotIndex = computeLvtSlotIndices(isStatic(methodAccess), this.methodArgs);
}
@Override
public void visitLocalVariable(String name, String description, String signature, Label start, Label end, int index) {
for (int i = 0; i < this.lvtSlotIndex.length; ++i) {
if (this.lvtSlotIndex[i] == index) {
this.parameterNames[i] = name;
}
}
}
@Override
protected void onMethodExit(int opcode) {
//排除构造方法和静态代码块
if ("<init>".equals(methodName) || "<clinit>".equals(methodName)) {
return;
}
if (opcode == RETURN) {
push((Type) null);
} else if (opcode == LRETURN || opcode == DRETURN) {
dup2();
box(Type.getReturnType(methodDesc));
} else {
dup();
box(Type.getReturnType(methodDesc));
}
Type objectType = Type.getObjectType("java/lang/Object");
push(lvtSlotIndex.length);
newArray(objectType);
for (int j = 0; j < lvtSlotIndex.length; j++) {
int index = lvtSlotIndex[j];
Type type = methodArgs[j];
dup();
push(j);
mv.visitVarInsn(ALOAD, index);
box(type);
arrayStore(objectType);
}
visitLdcInsn(className.replace("/", "."));
visitLdcInsn(methodName);
mv.visitMethodInsn(INVOKESTATIC, "org/xunche/agent/Sender", "send", "(Ljava/lang/Object;[Ljava/lang/Object;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;)V", false);
}
private static int[] computeLvtSlotIndices(boolean isStatic, Type[] paramTypes) {
int[] lvtIndex = new int[paramTypes.length];
int nextIndex = isStatic ? 0 : 1;
for (int i = 0; i < paramTypes.length; ++i) {
lvtIndex[i] = nextIndex;
if (isWideType(paramTypes[i])) {
nextIndex += 2;
} else {
++nextIndex;
}
}
return lvtIndex;
}
private static boolean isWideType(Type aType) {
return aType == Type.LONG_TYPE || aType == Type.DOUBLE_TYPE;
}
private static boolean isStatic(int access) {
return (access & 8) > 0;
}
}
}
java
public class Sender {
private static final int SERVER_PORT = 9876;
public static void send(Object response, Object[] request, String className, String methodName) {
Message message = new Message(response, request, className, methodName);
try {
Socket socket = new Socket("localhost", SERVER_PORT);
socket.getOutputStream().write(message.toString().getBytes());
socket.close();
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
private static class Message {
private Object response;
private Object[] request;
private String className;
private String methodName;
public Message(Object response, Object[] request, String className, String methodName) {
this.response = response;
this.request = request;
this.className = className;
this.methodName = methodName;
}
@Override
public String toString() {
return "Message{" +
"response=" + response +
", request=" + Arrays.toString(request) +
", className='" + className + '\'' +
", methodName='" + methodName + '\'' +
'}';
}
}
}
java
package org.xunche.app;
import com.sun.tools.attach.AgentInitializationException;
import com.sun.tools.attach.AgentLoadException;
import com.sun.tools.attach.AttachNotSupportedException;
import com.sun.tools.attach.VirtualMachine;
import java.io.BufferedReader;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.InputStreamReader;
import java.net.ServerSocket;
import java.net.Socket;
public class TraceAgentMain {
private static final int SERVER_PORT = 9876;
public static void main(String[] args) throws IOException, AttachNotSupportedException, AgentLoadException, AgentInitializationException {
new Server().start();
//attach的进程
VirtualMachine vm = VirtualMachine.attach("85241");
//加载agent并指明需要采集信息的类和方法
vm.loadAgent("trace-agent.jar", "org.xunche.app.HelloTraceAgent.sayHi");
vm.detach();
}
private static class Server implements Runnable {
@Override
public void run() {
try {
ServerSocket serverSocket = new ServerSocket(SERVER_PORT);
while (true) {
Socket socket = serverSocket.accept();
InputStream input = socket.getInputStream();
BufferedReader reader = new BufferedReader(new InputStreamReader(input));
System.out.println("receive message:" + reader.readLine());
}
} catch (IOException e) {
e.printStackTrace();
}
}
public void start() {
Thread thread = new Thread(this);
thread.start();
}
}
}
java
receive message:Message{response=hi, xunche, 1581599464436, request=[xunche], className='org.xunche.app.HelloTraceAgent', methodName='sayHi'}

4) Summary

Original Source:

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