Let’s Talk about Several of the JVM-level Locks in Java

Synchronized

Locked Upgrade Process

Object Header Area

Instance Data Area

Alignment and Padding Area

Biased Lock

Upgrading to the Lightweight Lock

Upgrading to the Heavyweight Lock

Reentrant

Pessimistic Lock (Mutex and Exclusive Lock)

ReentrantLock

Reentrant

Both Locking and Unlocking Are Manual

Lock Timeout Is Supported

Fair and Unfair Locks Are Supported

The Lock Is Interruptible

ReentrantReadWriteLock

The WriteLock (Write Lock) Is a Pessimistic Lock (Exclusive Lock or Mutex)

/**
* 获取写锁
Acquires the write lock.
* 如果此时没有任何线程持有写锁或者读锁,那么当前线程执行CAS操作更新status,
* 若更新成功,则设置读锁重入次数为1,并立即返回
* <p>Acquires the write lock if neither the read nor write lock
* are held by another thread
* and returns immediately, setting the write lock hold count to
* one.
* 如果当前线程已经持有该写锁,那么将写锁持有次数设置为1,并立即返回
* <p>If the current thread already holds the write lock then the
* hold count is incremented by one and the method returns
* immediately.
* 如果该锁已经被另外一个线程持有,那么停止该线程的CPU调度并进入休眠状态,
* 直到该写锁被释放,且成功将写锁持有次数设置为1才表示获取写锁成功
* <p>If the lock is held by another thread then the current
* thread becomes disabled for thread scheduling purposes and
* lies dormant until the write lock has been acquired, at which
* time the write lock hold count is set to one.
*/
public void lock() {
sync.acquire(1);
}
/**
* 该方法为以独占模式获取锁,忽略中断
* 如果调用一次该"tryAcquire"方法更新status成功,则直接返回,代表抢锁成功
* 否则,将会进入同步队列等待,不断执行"tryAcquire"方法尝试CAS更新status状态,直到成功抢到锁
* 其中"tryAcquire"方法在NonfairSync(公平锁)中和FairSync(非公平锁)中都有各自的实现
*
* Acquires in exclusive mode, ignoring interrupts. Implemented
* by invoking at least once {@link #tryAcquire},
* returning on success. Otherwise the thread is queued, possibly
* repeatedly blocking and unblocking, invoking {@link
* #tryAcquire} until success. This method can be used
* to implement method {@link Lock#lock}.
*
* @param arg the acquire argument. This value is conveyed to
* {@link #tryAcquire} but is otherwise uninterpreted and
* can represent anything you like.
*/
public final void acquire(int arg) {
if (!tryAcquire(arg) &&
acquireQueued(addWaiter(Node.EXCLUSIVE), arg))
selfInterrupt();
}
protected final boolean tryAcquire(int acquires) {
/*
* Walkthrough:
* 1、如果读写锁的计数不为0,且持有锁的线程不是当前线程,则返回false
* 1. If read count nonzero or write count nonzero
* and owner is a different thread, fail.
* 2、如果持有锁的计数不为0且计数总数超过限定的最大值,也返回false
* 2. If count would saturate, fail. (This can only
* happen if count is already nonzero.)
* 3、如果该锁是可重入或该线程在队列中的策略是允许它尝试抢锁,那么该线程就能获取锁
* 3. Otherwise, this thread is eligible for lock if
* it is either a reentrant acquire or
* queue policy allows it. If so, update state
* and set owner.
*/
Thread current = Thread.currentThread();
//获取读写锁的状态
int c = getState();
//获取该写锁重入的次数
int w = exclusiveCount(c);
//如果读写锁状态不为0,说明已经有其他线程获取了读锁或写锁
if (c != 0) {
//如果写锁重入次数为0,说明有线程获取到读锁,根据"读写锁互斥"原则,返回false
//或者如果写锁重入次数不为0,且获取写锁的线程不是当前线程,根据"写锁独占"原则,返回false
// (Note: if c != 0 and w == 0 then shared count != 0)
if (w == 0 || current != getExclusiveOwnerThread())
return false;
//如果写锁可重入次数超过最大次数(65535),则抛异常
if (w + exclusiveCount(acquires) > MAX_COUNT)
throw new Error("Maximum lock count exceeded");
//到这里说明该线程是重入写锁,更新重入写锁的计数(+1),返回true
// Reentrant acquire
setState(c + acquires);
return true;
}
//如果读写锁状态为0,说明读锁和写锁都没有被获取,会走下面两个分支:
//如果要阻塞或者执行CAS操作更新读写锁的状态失败,则返回false
//如果不需要阻塞且CAS操作成功,则当前线程成功拿到锁,设置锁的owner为当前线程,返回true
if (writerShouldBlock() ||
!compareAndSetState(c, c + acquires))
return false;
setExclusiveOwnerThread(current);
return true;
}
/*
* Note that tryRelease and tryAcquire can be called by
* Conditions. So it is possible that their arguments contain
* both read and write holds that are all released during a
* condition wait and re-established in tryAcquire.
*/
protected final boolean tryRelease(int releases) {
//若锁的持有者不是当前线程,抛出异常
if (!isHeldExclusively())
throw new IllegalMonitorStateException();
//写锁的可重入计数减掉releases个
int nextc = getState() - releases;
//如果写锁重入计数为0了,则说明写锁被释放了
boolean free = exclusiveCount(nextc) == 0;
if (free)
//若写锁被释放,则将锁的持有者设置为null,进行GC
setExclusiveOwnerThread(null);
//更新写锁的重入计数
setState(nextc);
return free;
}

The ReadLock (Read Lock) Is a Shared Lock (Optimistic Lock)

/**
* 获取读锁
* Acquires the read lock.
* 如果写锁未被其他线程持有,执行CAS操作更新status值,获取读锁后立即返回
* <p>Acquires the read lock if the write lock is not held by
* another thread and returns immediately.
*
* 如果写锁被其他线程持有,那么停止该线程的CPU调度并进入休眠状态,直到该读锁被释放
* <p>If the write lock is held by another thread then
* the current thread becomes disabled for thread scheduling
* purposes and lies dormant until the read lock has been acquired.
*/
public void lock() {
sync.acquireShared(1);
}
/**
* 该方法为以共享模式获取读锁,忽略中断
* 如果调用一次该"tryAcquireShared"方法更新status成功,则直接返回,代表抢锁成功
* 否则,将会进入同步队列等待,不断执行"tryAcquireShared"方法尝试CAS更新status状态,直到成功抢到锁
* 其中"tryAcquireShared"方法在NonfairSync(公平锁)中和FairSync(非公平锁)中都有各自的实现
* (看这注释是不是和写锁很对称)
* Acquires in shared mode, ignoring interrupts. Implemented by
* first invoking at least once {@link #tryAcquireShared},
* returning on success. Otherwise the thread is queued, possibly
* repeatedly blocking and unblocking, invoking {@link
* #tryAcquireShared} until success.
*
* @param arg the acquire argument. This value is conveyed to
* {@link #tryAcquireShared} but is otherwise uninterpreted
* and can represent anything you like.
*/
public final void acquireShared(int arg) {
if (tryAcquireShared(arg) < 0)
doAcquireShared(arg);
}
protected final int tryAcquireShared(int unused) {
/*
* Walkthrough:
* 1、如果已经有其他线程获取到了写锁,根据"读写互斥"原则,抢锁失败,返回-1
* 1.If write lock held by another thread, fail.
* 2、如果该线程本身持有写锁,那么看一下是否要readerShouldBlock,如果不需要阻塞,
* 则执行CAS操作更新state和重入计数。
* 这里要注意的是,上面的步骤不检查是否可重入(因为读锁属于共享锁,天生支持可重入)
* 2. Otherwise, this thread is eligible for
* lock wrt state, so ask if it should block
* because of queue policy. If not, try
* to grant by CASing state and updating count.
* Note that step does not check for reentrant
* acquires, which is postponed to full version
* to avoid having to check hold count in
* the more typical non-reentrant case.
* 3、如果因为CAS更新status失败或者重入计数超过最大值导致步骤2执行失败
* 那就进入到fullTryAcquireShared方法进行死循环,直到抢锁成功
* 3. If step 2 fails either because thread
* apparently not eligible or CAS fails or count
* saturated, chain to version with full retry loop.
*/

//当前尝试获取读锁的线程
Thread current = Thread.currentThread();
//获取该读写锁状态
int c = getState();
//如果有线程获取到了写锁 ,且获取写锁的不是当前线程则返回失败
if (exclusiveCount(c) != 0 &&
getExclusiveOwnerThread() != current)
return -1;
//获取读锁的重入计数
int r = sharedCount(c);
//如果读线程不应该被阻塞,且重入计数小于最大值,且CAS执行读锁重入计数+1成功,则执行线程重入的计数加1操作,返回成功
if (!readerShouldBlock() &&
r < MAX_COUNT &&
compareAndSetState(c, c + SHARED_UNIT)) {
//如果还未有线程获取到读锁,则将firstReader设置为当前线程,firstReaderHoldCount设置为1
if (r == 0) {
firstReader = current;
firstReaderHoldCount = 1;
} else if (firstReader == current) {
//如果firstReader是当前线程,则将firstReader的重入计数变量firstReaderHoldCount加1
firstReaderHoldCount++;
} else {
//否则说明有至少两个线程共享读锁,获取共享锁重入计数器HoldCounter
//从HoldCounter中拿到当前线程的线程变量cachedHoldCounter,将此线程的重入计数count加1
HoldCounter rh = cachedHoldCounter;
if (rh == null || rh.tid != getThreadId(current))
cachedHoldCounter = rh = readHolds.get();
else if (rh.count == 0)
readHolds.set(rh);
rh.count++;
}
return 1;
}
//如果上面的if条件有一个都不满足,则进入到这个方法里进行死循环重新获取
return fullTryAcquireShared(current);
}
/**
* 用于处理CAS操作state失败和tryAcquireShared中未执行获取可重入锁动作的full方法(补偿方法?)
* Full version of acquire for reads, that handles CAS misses
* and reentrant reads not dealt with in tryAcquireShared.
*/
final int fullTryAcquireShared(Thread current) {
/*
* 此代码与tryAcquireShared中的代码有部分相似的地方,
* 但总体上更简单,因为不会使tryAcquireShared与重试和延迟读取保持计数之间的复杂判断
* This code is in part redundant with that in
* tryAcquireShared but is simpler overall by not
* complicating tryAcquireShared with interactions between
* retries and lazily reading hold counts.
*/
HoldCounter rh = null;
//死循环
for (;;) {
//获取读写锁状态
int c = getState();
//如果有线程获取到了写锁
if (exclusiveCount(c) != 0) {
//如果获取写锁的线程不是当前线程,返回失败
if (getExclusiveOwnerThread() != current)
return -1;
// else we hold the exclusive lock; blocking here
// would cause deadlock.
} else if (readerShouldBlock()) {//如果没有线程获取到写锁,且读线程要阻塞
// Make sure we're not acquiring read lock reentrantly
//如果当前线程为第一个获取到读锁的线程
if (firstReader == current) {
// assert firstReaderHoldCount > 0;
} else { //如果当前线程不是第一个获取到读锁的线程(也就是说至少有有一个线程获取到了读锁)
//
if (rh == null) {
rh = cachedHoldCounter;
if (rh == null || rh.tid != getThreadId(current)) {
rh = readHolds.get();
if (rh.count == 0)
readHolds.remove();
}
}
if (rh.count == 0)
return -1;
}
}
/**
*下面是既没有线程获取写锁,当前线程又不需要阻塞的情况
*/
//重入次数等于最大重入次数,抛异常
if (sharedCount(c) == MAX_COUNT)
throw new Error("Maximum lock count exceeded");
//如果执行CAS操作成功将读写锁的重入计数加1,则对当前持有这个共享读锁的线程的重入计数加1,然后返回成功
if (compareAndSetState(c, c + SHARED_UNIT)) {
if (sharedCount(c) == 0) {
firstReader = current;
firstReaderHoldCount = 1;
} else if (firstReader == current) {
firstReaderHoldCount++;
} else {
if (rh == null)
rh = cachedHoldCounter;
if (rh == null || rh.tid != getThreadId(current))
rh = readHolds.get();
else if (rh.count == 0)
readHolds.set(rh);
rh.count++;
cachedHoldCounter = rh; // cache for release
}
return 1;
}
}
}
/**
* Releases in shared mode. Implemented by unblocking one or more
* threads if {@link #tryReleaseShared} returns true.
*
* @param arg the release argument. This value is conveyed to
* {@link #tryReleaseShared} but is otherwise uninterpreted
* and can represent anything you like.
* @return the value returned from {@link #tryReleaseShared}
*/
public final boolean releaseShared(int arg) {
if (tryReleaseShared(arg)) {//尝试释放一次共享锁计数
doReleaseShared();//真正释放锁
return true;
}
return false;
}
/**
*此方法表示读锁线程释放锁。
*首先判断当前线程是否为第一个读线程firstReader,
*若是,则判断第一个读线程占有的资源数firstReaderHoldCount是否为1,
若是,则设置第一个读线程firstReader为空,否则,将第一个读线程占有的资源数firstReaderHoldCount减1;
若当前线程不是第一个读线程,
那么首先会获取缓存计数器(上一个读锁线程对应的计数器 ),
若计数器为空或者tid不等于当前线程的tid值,则获取当前线程的计数器,
如果计数器的计数count小于等于1,则移除当前线程对应的计数器,
如果计数器的计数count小于等于0,则抛出异常,之后再减少计数即可。
无论何种情况,都会进入死循环,该循环可以确保成功设置状态state
*/
protected final boolean tryReleaseShared(int unused) {
// 获取当前线程
Thread current = Thread.currentThread();
if (firstReader == current) { // 当前线程为第一个读线程
// assert firstReaderHoldCount > 0;
if (firstReaderHoldCount == 1) // 读线程占用的资源数为1
firstReader = null;
else // 减少占用的资源
firstReaderHoldCount--;
} else { // 当前线程不为第一个读线程
// 获取缓存的计数器
HoldCounter rh = cachedHoldCounter;
if (rh == null || rh.tid != getThreadId(current)) // 计数器为空或者计数器的tid不为当前正在运行的线程的tid
// 获取当前线程对应的计数器
rh = readHolds.get();
// 获取计数
int count = rh.count;
if (count <= 1) { // 计数小于等于1
// 移除
readHolds.remove();
if (count <= 0) // 计数小于等于0,抛出异常
throw unmatchedUnlockException();
}
// 减少计数
--rh.count;
}
for (;;) { // 死循环
// 获取状态
int c = getState();
// 获取状态
int nextc = c - SHARED_UNIT;
if (compareAndSetState(c, nextc)) // 比较并进行设置
// Releasing the read lock has no effect on readers,
// but it may allow waiting writers to proceed if
// both read and write locks are now free.
return nextc == 0;
}
}
/**真正释放锁
* Release action for shared mode -- signals successor and ensures
* propagation. (Note: For exclusive mode, release just amounts
* to calling unparkSuccessor of head if it needs signal.)
*/
private void doReleaseShared() {
/*
* Ensure that a release propagates, even if there are other
* in-progress acquires/releases. This proceeds in the usual
* way of trying to unparkSuccessor of head if it needs
* signal. But if it does not, status is set to PROPAGATE to
* ensure that upon release, propagation continues.
* Additionally, we must loop in case a new node is added
* while we are doing this. Also, unlike other uses of
* unparkSuccessor, we need to know if CAS to reset status
* fails, if so rechecking.
*/
for (;;) {
Node h = head;
if (h != null && h != tail) {
int ws = h.waitStatus;
if (ws == Node.SIGNAL) {
if (!compareAndSetWaitStatus(h, Node.SIGNAL, 0))
continue; // loop to recheck cases
unparkSuccessor(h);
}
else if (ws == 0 &&
!compareAndSetWaitStatus(h, 0, Node.PROPAGATE))
continue; // loop on failed CAS
}
if (h == head) // loop if head changed
break;
}
}

LongAdder

Original Source:

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