Paxos, Raft, EPaxos: How Has Distributed Consensus Technology Evolved?

What Is Distributed Consensus?


  • Win over the proposal right: Only when the right to propose is obtained can a proposal be initiated in the acceptance phase. Otherwise, the right to propose needs to be obtained again.
  • Learn the values that have been proposed.



  • The leader of Raft is the proposer of Multi-Paxos.
  • The term of Raft is essentially the proposal ID of Multi-Paxos.
  • The log entry of Raft is the proposal of Multi-Paxos.
  • The log index of Raft is the instance ID of Multi-Paxos.
  • The leader election of Raft is essentially the preparation phase of Multi-Paxos.
  • The log replication of Raft is the acceptance phase of Multi-Paxos.
  • Leader Lease: After the lease of the previous leader expires, the system randomly waits for a period of time to launch the leader election, ensuring that the lease between the old and new leaders does not overlap.
  • Leader Stickiness: The follower with the unexpired Leader Lease rejects the new leader election request.


Comparative Analysis

1. Understandability

2. Efficiency

3. Availability

4. Application Scenarios

Original Source:



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